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The underlying idea behind the protestant reformation
is the idea that the bible alone is the only rule of faith. The
bible does not support this belief.
Also see Same book? and On Bible Translations
|Not everything is in the Bible||Jn 21:25|
|Paul speaks of oral tradition as authoritative||2 Thess 2:15; 2 Tim 2:2; 1 Cor 11:2; 1 Thess 2:13|
|Early Christians followed apostolic tradition||Acts 2:42|
|Specific references where Jesus speaks or is quoted as revealing truth which is not in Scripture||Matt 2:23; Acts 20:35; James 4:5|
|The great commission by Christ was to preach not to write||Matt 28:19; 20|
Martin Luther, wanting to avoid the responsibility of doing good works, promoted the idea of faith alone as a means of salvation. The Church has always taught that faith, hope, and love (charity) are required for salvation. The only time the expression "faith alone" is mentioned in the bible is in James 2:24, where the author says Abraham was NOT saved by faith alone.
|What good is faith without works?||Jas 2:14-26|
|Must avoid sin||Heb 10:26|
|"Earning" forgiveness||Jas 5:20|
|Must do will of God||Lk 6:46; Mt 7:21; Mt 19:16-21; 1Tim 5:8|
|Paul disciplines himself to avoid losing salvation||1Cor 9:27|
|Works have merit||Phil 2:12; 2 Cor 5:10; Rom 2:6; Mt 25:32-46; Gal 6:6-10|
|Keep commandments||1Jn 2:3-4; 1Jn 3:24; 1Jn 5:3|
Deuterocanonicals were used in New Testament:
|2 Mac 6:18-7:42||Heb 11:35|
|Wisdom 3:5-6||1 Pet 1:6-7|
|Wisdom 13:1-9||Rom 1:18-32|
Septuagint (Greek, w/ Deuterocanonicals) version of Old Testament quoted in New Testament, noticeably different from Hebrew version:
|Is 7:14||Mt 1:23|
|Is 40:3||Mt 3:3|
|Joel 2:30-31||Acts 2:19-29|
|Ps 95:7-9||Heb 3:7-9|
|Suggests baptism of all, entire household including children||Acts 2:38-39; Acts 16:15; Acts 16:33; 1 Cor 1:16|
|Necessity of baptism||Jn 3:5|
|Circumcision (normally performed on infants) replaced by baptism||Col 2:11-12|
|Peter always mentioned first, as foremost apostle||Mt 10:1-4; Mk 3:16-19; Lk 6:14-16; Acts 1:13; Lk 9:32|
|Peter speaks for the apostles||Mt 18:21; Mk 8:29; Lk 12:41; Jn 6:69|
|Pentecost: Peter who first preached||Acts 2:14-40|
|Peter worked first healing||Acts 3:6-7|
|Gentiles to be baptized revealed to Peter||Acts 10:46-48|
|Simon is Cephas (Aramaic: Kepha for rock)||Jn 1:42|
|"on this Rock I will build my Church; Peter given keys to Kingdom; Given power to bind and loose"||Mt 16:18-19|
|Keys as symbol of authority||Is 22:22; Rev 1:18|
|"feed my sheep"||Jn 21:17|
|"Simon strengthen your brethren"||Lk 22:31-32|
|"Vicars" of Christ||Lk 10:1-2; 16; Jn 13:20; 2 Cor 5:20; Gal 4:14; Acts 5:1-5|
|The Seat of Moses as teaching authority||Matt 23-2|
|Built on the foundation of the Apostles and prophets||Eph. 2:20|
Traditional Christianity held that Jesus is Mary's
only son. The references to Jesus' brothers refers to other family
members, and in some cases to his disciples.
|Not God of the dead, but of the living||Mk 12:26-27|
|Body of Christ||1 Cor 12:25-27; Rom 12:4-5|
|Intercessory prayer||Eph 6:18; Rom 15:30; Col 4:3; 1 Thess 1:11|
|Veneration of angels united with God||Mt 18:10; Jos 5:14; Dan 8:17; Tobit 12:16|
|Saints also united with God||1 Cor 13:12; 1 John 3:2|
|Deceased Onias and Jeremiah interceded for Jews||2 Mac 15:11-16|
|Moses and Samuel's intercession||Jer 15:1|
|The Saints rose at the Resurrection and wandered around Jerusalem||Eph 2:19; Matt 27:52|
|The warning is not to communicate with the Dead, Saints are not dead they are alive as all are alive to God||Deut. 18:10|
|The Tranfiguration, were Moses and Elijah dead?||Matt 17, & Mark 9|
|God commands images to be made||Ex 25:18-22; Num 21:8-9|
|Solomon builds his temple with statues and images||1 Kings 6:23-29; 35; 7:29|
Often people argue that there is no historical precedent
for the primacy of Peter and the papacy. Here are some short
quotes showing what the early Christians believed about the papacy.
Clement of Alexandria
"[T]he blessed Peter, the chosen, the pre-eminent,
the first among the disciples, for whom alone with himself the
Savior paid the tribute [Matt. 17:27], quickly grasped and understood
their meaning. And what does he say? `Behold, we have left all
and have followed you'" [Matt. 19:27; Mark 10:28] (Who
Is the Rich Man That is Saved? 21:3-5 [A.D. 200]).
"For though you think that heaven is still shut
up, remember that the Lord left the keys of it to Peter here,
and through him to the Church, which keys everyone will carry
with him if he has been questioned and made a confession [of faith]"
(Antidote Against the Scorpion 10 [A.D. 211]).
"[T]he Lord said to Peter, 'On this rock I will
build my Church, I have given you the keys of the kingdom of heaven
[and] whatever you shall have bound or loosed on earth will be
bound or loosed in heaven' [Matt. 16:18-19] . . . Upon you, he
says, I will build my Church; and I will give to you the keys,
not to the Church; and whatever you shall have bound or you shall
have loosed, not what they shall have bound or they shall have
loosed" (Modesty 21:9-10 [A.D. 220]).
Cyprian of Carthage
"The Lord says to Peter: 'I say to you,' he
says, 'that you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my
Church' . . . On him [Peter] he builds the Church, and to him
he gives the command to feed the sheep [John 21:17], and although
he assigns a like power to all the apostles, yet he founded a
single chair [cathedra], and he established by his own authority
a source and an intrinsic reason for that unity. Indeed, the others
were that also which Peter was [i.e., apostles], but a primacy
is given to Peter, whereby it is made clear that there is but
one Church and one chair. So too, all [the apostles] are shepherds,
and the flock is shown to be one, fed by all the apostles in single-minded
accord. If someone does not hold fast to this unity of Peter,
can he imagine that he still holds the faith? If he [should] desert
the chair of Peter upon whom the Church was built, can he still
be confident that he is in the Church?" (The Unity of
the Catholic Church 4; 1st edition [A.D. 251]).
Ephraim the Syrian
"[Jesus said:] Simon, my follower, I have made you the foundation of the holy Church. I betimes called you Peter, because you will support all its buildings. You are the inspector of those who will build on Earth a Church for me. If they should wish to build what is false, you, the foundation, will condemn them. You are the head of the fountain from which my teaching flows; you are the chief of my disciples. Through you I will give drink to all peoples. Yours is that life-giving sweetness which I dispense. I have chosen you to be, as it were, the first-born in my institution so that, as the heir, you may be executor of my treasures. I have given you the keys of my kingdom. Behold, I have given you authority over all my treasures" (Homilies 4:1 [A.D. 351]).
Ambrose of Milan
"[Christ] made answer: 'You are Peter, and upon
this rock will I build my Church . . .' Could he not, then, strengthen
the faith of the man to whom, acting on his own authority, he
gave the kingdom, whom he called the rock, thereby declaring him
to be the foundation of the Church [Matt. 16:18]?" (The
Faith 4:5 [A.D. 379]).
Pope Damasus I
"Likewise it is decreed . . . that it ought
to be announced that . . . the holy Roman Church has been placed
at the forefront not by the conciliar decisions of other churches,
but has received the primacy by the evangelic voice of our Lord
and Savior, who says: 'You are Peter, and upon this rock I will
build my Church, and the gates of hell will not prevail against
it; and I will give to you the keys of the kingdom of heaven .
. . ' [Matt. 16:18-19]. The first see, therefore, is that of Peter
the apostle, that of the Roman Church, which has neither stain
nor blemish nor anything like it" (Decree of Damasus
3 [A.D. 382]).
"'But,' you [Jovinian] will say, 'it was on
Peter that the Church was founded' [Matt. 16:18]. Well . . . one
among the twelve is chosen to be their head in order to remove
any occasion for division" (Against Jovinian 1:26
"Simon Peter, the son of John, from the village
of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee, brother of Andrew the
apostle, and himself chief of the apostles, after having been
bishop of the church of Antioch and having preached to the Dispersion
. . . pushed on to Rome in the second year of Claudius to over-throw
Simon Magus, and held the sacerdotal chair there for twenty-five
years until the last, that is the fourteenth, year of Nero. At
his hands he received the crown of martyrdom being nailed to the
cross with his head towards the ground and his feet raised on
high, asserting that he was unworthy to be crucified in the same
manner as his Lord" (Lives of Illustrious Men 1 [A.D.
Pope Innocent I
"In seeking the things of God . . . you have
acknowledged that judgment is to be referred to us [the pope],
and have shown that you know that is owed to the Apostolic See
[Rome], if all of us placed in this position are to desire to
follow the Apostle himself [Peter] from whom the episcopate itself
and the total authority of this name have emerged" (Letters
29:1 [A.D. 408]).
"Among these [apostles] Peter alone almost everywhere
deserved to represent the whole Church. Because of that representation
of the Church, which only he bore, he deserved to hear 'I will
give to you the keys of the kingdom of heaven" (Sermons
295:2 [A.D. 411]).
"Some things are said which seem to relate especially
to the apostle Peter, and yet are not clear in their meaning unless
referred to the Church, which he is acknowledged to have represented
in a figure on account of the primacy which he bore among the
disciples. Such is 'I will give unto you the keys of the kingdom
of heaven,' and other similar passages. In the same way, Judas
represents those Jews who were Christ's enemies" (Commentary
on Psalm 108 1 [A.D. 415])
"Who is ignorant that the first of the apostles
is the most blessed Peter?" (Commentary on John 56:1 [A.D.
Council of Ephesus
"Philip, presbyter and legate of [Pope Celestine I] said: 'We offer our thanks to the holy and venerable synod, that when the writings of our holy and blessed pope had been read to you . . . you joined yourselves to the holy head also by your holy acclamations. For your blessednesses is not ignorant that the head of the whole faith, the head of the Apostles, is blessed Peter the Apostle'" (Acts of the Council, session 2 [A.D. 431]).
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